Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Acts (James Proclaims the Spirit of God in Rome)

Acts
In Acts we see the real reason why Paul (Saul) was created.  Paul masked James.  James had been in Rome much earlier proclaiming that the Spirit was God.  James was the champion of the Jewish real Spirit of God.   James travelled to Rome, spent some time there, and was then sent back to Jerusalem. Two years later James met his death at the hands of Ananus.

Paul was created later, in Jerusalem preaching that Jesus was the Christ.  Paul was the Flavian champion of a fictitious Jesus.    The Flavian writer has Paul travelling in the opposite direction to Rome at the same time as James travelled to Jerusalem.  Paul then vanished. 
The fictitious Paul apparently knows so many Romans that he appears to have spent some time living there before embarking on his missionary journeys.  Thus, it is mighty strange that he is said not to have visited Rome before.

The Flavians had to acknowledge the importance of the Holy Spirit,  but for them it was received after the so called laying on of hands, and usually after baptism (See Acts 8:17).  By sharp contrast the prophets taught that God sent his Spirit to everyone, but only those who obeyed the Spirit received it.  This was a direct communication between God and man without an intercessor. 

James accompanied the young Nero to Rome to meet Nero’s step father Claudius and his mother, Agrippina.  Nero had been under the care of Agrippa I, and had stayed in the palace at Ein Gedi. He had become interested in the Jewish religion of Agrippa I who had adopted the worship of the prophets.  The Spirit of God was proclaimed by the prophets.  This was an opportunity for James to proclaim the Spirit in Rome with the blessing of the Emperor Claudius.  It was not a knew religion, generally frowned upon by by the Romans, but a more pure form of the Jewish religion, without animal sacrifice, and in keeping with the Roman belief in spirits.  The Romans were a spiritistic society, where the idea of someone being anointed by the Spirit of God was easily acceptable.  These were to become Christianos (anointed ones) as at Pompeii.  

There are images of women in the catacombs of Priscilla, leading worship, both in groups and individually.  Also high on a wall in the same catacombs is an image of a mother and child.  The women is symbolic of the Spirit .  She is the conveyor of the spirit to her child.  In Jewish theology every person has a spirit. It is a person’s spirit which gives life which comes from God.  In the early Christianos the women prayed and led prayers in the Spirit, and the men concentrated on proclaiming the Spirit. (See Acts 6).
Acts 7 is the key to understanding Acts.  In Acts 7:51, James clearly identifies that Acts was about the Holy Spirit,  and the historical background of the Holy Spirit, beginning with Abraham. From the time of Moses, the priests had rejected the Holy Spirit. In Acts 7:52, James identifies himself as a prophet. In Acts 7;41,42 he speaks against animal sacrifice. In Acts 7:48,49 he teaches that the Holy Spirit is not confined to the temple. It wasn’t Moses the Jews had rejected, but God’s Spirit. (Acts 7.35).  The stoning of Stephen (Acts 7:58) is pure fiction to introduce the fictitious Saul (Paul) out of the blue. James was dragged out of the Synagogue by the priests attending the Synagogue in Rome. The priests dare not do any more to James who they knew was a friend of Nero and Agrippa I. 

The story about king 'Herod' executing 'James' (Acts 12) is a good example of ex-priests, working for the Flavians, knowing about this event, and using it to create a fictitious story.   The true story was about king Aristobulus, Caiaphas and his son Eleazar which  was used to create a false story about king Herod, James and Peter.  (See below and http://raphaelgolb.blogspot.co.uk/2013/03/the-asor-blog-mark-goodacre-bible.html)

Yet there are hints in Acts that the Flavian editors or writers knew Hebrew.  See http://www.academia.edu/1669906/What_language_did_Paul_speak_in_Acts_21-22_Ancient_names_for_Hebrew_and_Aramaic  Captured Jewish priests were working for the Flavian historians, writing NT texts in Greek, not Hebrew. The reason was that the Flavians did not understand Hebrew, and could not check it.  Otherwise, we would have had the original New Testament in Latin, the preferred language of the Roman elite, which the priests did not understand sufficiently to be able to write it.  The Romans frowned upon the use of Greek, and refused to speak it, using a mediator if they had to.  The priests didn't understand Latin and the Romans didn't know Hebrew.  The only way the Romans could be sure what the ex-priests were writing was to use Greek, a widely understood language.  Thus the Greek language was forced upon the Roman controllers of the priests.  There was an army of Jewish ex-priests and Roman historians working together for the Flavians to create and copy  the manuscripts.  Only the Romans had sufficient resources to create, write and disseminate the NT documents.  The Roman aversion to using Greek was probably the reason why the koine Greek language was used.  Neither priests, upon whom the Romans depended for their source information, nor Roman historians were sufficiently competent to write Greek in the language of the Greek elite.  

Many of the New Testament  letters were originally short letters, probably written by one prophet, James, in Hebrew not Greek.  These letters were not written to various churches in different parts of the world from a fictitious Paul.  They were written by James from Rome to the prophets who had occupied the temple. The letters were found by Titus along with the temple treasure, before the temple was destroyed.  The letters were then expanded and edited beyond recognition by later Jewish ex-priests and Roman historians working for the Flavians. Thus the books of the New Testament now appear as treatises, not letters.   

In Chapter 26, James has an audience with Claudius, who (in Chapter 27) makes the decision to send him back to Jerusalem with some of the prophets.  This was because the prophets were experiencing persecution by the priests.  They were to call in at Alexandria, and charter a grain ship, paid for by Agrippina. The grain was to help the prophets who were being starved by the priests.  It was Autumn. On leaving Alexandria, the ship had to face the North Easter, and was blown westward.  The ship's owner decided to take shelter for the winter in the lee of Cyprus at the harbour of Kato Paphos.  The shipwreck was pure fiction. 

Chapter 1
This chapter is complete fiction.  There was no former book about Jesus.
1.1.[In my former book, Theophilus, I wrote about all that Jesus began to do and to teach until the day
1.2.he was taken up to heaven, after giving instructions to the apostles he had chosen. 
1.3.After his suffering, he showed himself to these men and gave many convincing proofs that he was alive.  He appeared to them over a period of forty days and spoke about the kingdom of God.
1.4.On one occasion, while he was eating with them, he gave them
this command: “Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised, which you have heard me speak about.
1.5.For John baptised with water, but in a few days you will be baptised with the Holy Spirit”.
1.6.So when they met together, they asked him, “Lord,  are you at this time going to restore the kingdom to Israel?” 
1.7.He said to them: “It is not for you to know the times and dates the Father has set by his own authority.
1.8.But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.
1.9.After he said this, he was taken up before their eyes, and a cloud hid him from their sight. 1.12.Then they returned to Jerusalem from the hill called the Mount of Olives, a Sabbath day's walk from the city.
1.13.When they arrived, they went upstairs to the room where they were staying. Those present were Peter, John, James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew; James son of Alphaeus, and, Simon the Zealot, and Judas son of James,
1.14.they all joined together constantly in prayer, along with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus , and the brothers. 
1.15.In those days Peter stood up among the believers (a group numbering about a hundred and twenty)
1.16.and said, "Brothers, the scripture had to be fulfilled which the Holy Spirit spoke long ago through the mouth of David concerning Judas, who served as a guide for those who arrested Jesus.”
1.17. He was one of our number and shared in this ministry.”
1.18.With the rewardreward he got for his wickedness, Judas bought a field; there he fell headlong, his body burst open and all his intestines spilled out.
1.19.Everyone in Jerusalem heard about this, so they called that field in their language Akeldama that is, Field of Blood.
1.20.“For”, said Peter it is written in the book of Psalms, “ ‘May his place be deserted; let there be no-one to dwell in it,’ and, ‘May another take his place of leadership.’
1.21.Therefore It is necessary to choose one of the men who has been with us the whole time the Lord Jesus went in and out among us.”
1.22., beginning from John’s baptism to the time when Jesus was taken up from us.  For one of these must become a witness with us of his resurrection.”
1.23.So they proposed two men: ­­­­­­­­­­­Joseph called Barsabbas also known as Justus, and Matthias. 1.24.Then they prayed, “Lord, you know everyone’s heart.  Show us which of these two you have chosen
1.25.to take over this apostolic ministry which Judas left to go where he belongs.
1.26.Then they cast lots, and the lot fell to Matthias; So he was added to the eleven apostles].
Chapter 2
The CHRISTIANOS (anointed ones) of Rome
This was a document written in the first person, an ‘I’, ‘me’, ‘we’, and ‘us’ document.
A group from Judea went to a synagogue in Rome.  This group was different.  They were prophets led and filled by the Spirit of God. Being filled with the Spirit was a normal event for these prophets.  They did everything in the Spirit, as the Spirit enabled them.  To them the Spirit was God himself.  This was a time for the Feast of Unleavened Bread when the Spirit descended.

2.1.When the [day of Pentecost] {Feast of Unleavened Bread} came, [they] {we} were all together in [one place] {the synagogue}. 

2.2.[Suddenly a sound of the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting. 
2.3.They saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and]   

{The  Spirit} came to rest on each of [them] {us}.

2.4.All of [them] {us} [were filled with the Holy Spirit and] began to [speak] {prophesy} [in other languages]  as the Spirit enabled [them] {us}.

2.5.Now there were staying in [Jerusalem] {Rome} [God-fearing] Jews from every nation under heaven.

2.6.When they heard this

[sound, a crowd came together in bewilderment, because each one heard them,    
2.7.Utterly amazed]

, they asked: "Are not all these men [who are speaking Galileans] {prophets}? 

2.8.[Then how is it that each of us hears them in his own language: 
2.9.Parthians, Medes and Elamites; residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia,
2.10.Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene, visitors from Rome
both Jews and converts to Judaism Cretans and Arabs –]

2.11.We hear them [declaring] {proclaiming} the [wonders] {Spirit} of God [in our own tongues] !" 

2.12.[Amazed and perplexed, they asked one another, "What does this mean?"  
2.13.Some, however, made fun of them and said, “They have had too much wine”]

2.14.Then [Peter] {I} [stood up with the brothers, raised his voice and] addressed the [crowd] {congregation}: "Fellow Jews and all of you who live in [Jerusalem] {Rome}, let me explain this to you;listen carefully to what I say. 

2.15. [These men are not drunk, as you suppose, it’s only nine in the morning.
2.16.No,]

this is what was spoken by the prophet Joel: "

2.17.In the last days, God says, ‘I will pour out my Spirit on all people. 
Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams.

2.18.Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days
,and they will prophesy.

2.19.[I will show wonders in the heaven above and signs on the earth below, blood and fire and billows of smoke.
2.20.The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord.
2.21.And everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.’
2.22.“Men of Israel, listen to this: Jesus of Nazareth was a man accredited by God to you by wonders and signs, which God did among you through him, as you yourselves know. 
2.23.This man was handed over to you by God’s set purpose and foreknowledge, and you, with the help of wicked men put him to death. 
2.24.But God raised him from the dead, freeing him from the agony of death for it was impossible for death to keep its hold on him.”
2.25.”David said about him: ‘I saw the Lord always before me.  Because he is at my right hand, I will not be shaken.
2.26.Therefore my heart is glad and my tongue rejoices; my body will also live in hope,
2.27.because you will not abandon me to the grave, nor will you let your holy one see decay.
2.28.You have made known to me the paths of life; you will fill me with joy in your presence.’
2.29.“Brothers, I can tell you confidently that the patriarch David died and was buried,  and his tomb is here to this day. 
2.30.But he was a prophet and knew that God had promised him on oath that he would place one of his descendants on his throne.
2.31.Seeing what was ahead, he spoke of the resurrection of the Christ.
2.32.God has raised this Jesus to life, and we are all witnesses of the fact.
2.33.Exalted to the right hand of God, he has received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit has poured out what you now see and hear.
2.34.“For David did not ascend to heaven, and yet he said, ‘The Lord said to my Lord:  “Sit at my right hand
2.35.until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.” ’ 
2.36.“Therefore, let all Israel be assured of this: God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified both Lord and Christ.”
2.37.When the people heard this, they were cut to the heart and said to Peter and the other apostles, "Brothers, “What shall we do?"
2.38. Peter replied,  “Repent and be baptised, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.]
 
2.39.The promise is for you and your children and for all who are far off -- for all whom the Lord our God will call." 

2.40.[With many other words he warned them; and he pleaded with them, "Save yourselves from this corrupt generation”
2.41.Those who accepted his message were baptised, and about three thousand were added to their  number that day.] 

2.42.[They] {We} devoted [themselves] {ourselves} [to the apostle’s teaching and to the fellowship, to the breaking of bread and] to prayer.

2.43.[Everyone was filled with awe, and many wonders and miraculous signs were done by the apostles].

2.44.All [the believers] {of us} were together and had everything in common. 

2.45.Selling [their] {our} possessions and goods, [they] {we} gave to anyone as he had need. 

2.46.Every day [they] {we} continued to meet together in the [temple courts] {synagogue}. 

2.47.[They] {We} [broke bread in their homes and] ate together with glad and pure hearts, praising God and enjoying the favour of all the [people] {brothers}.

2.48.And the Lord added to [their] {our} number daily [those who were being saved].

Chapter 3


Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

A division of labour - Men proclaimed the Spirit while the women prayed in the Spirit

6.1.[In those days when the number of disciples was increasing,]

The [Grecian Jews] {sisters} complained against [the Hebraic Jews] {brothers} because [their widows] {they} were being overlooked in the daily [distribution of food] {prayers}.

6.2.So [the twelve] {I} gathered all the [disciples] {sisters and brothers} together and said, "It [would not be] {is} right for [us] {the women} to [neglect the ministry of] {pray in} the [word] {Spirit} of God [in order to wait on tables.]

6.3.[Brothers, choose seven men from from among you who are known to be full of the Spirit and wisdom.  We will turn this responsibility over to them]

6.4.and [we] {the men} will give [our] {their} attention to [prayer and the ministry of the word] {the proclamation of the Spirit}.”

6.5.This proposal pleased the whole group.

[They chose Stephen, full of faith; also Philip, Procorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, and Nicolas from Antioch, a convert to Judaism.
6.6.They presented these men to the apostles who prayed and laid their hands on them.]

6.7.So the [word] {Spirit} of God spread. The number of [disciples] {Christianos} in [Jerusalem] {Rome} increased rapidly, and a large number of priests became obedient to the [faith] {Spirit}

6.8.[Now Stephen, a man full of God’s grace and power, did great wonders and miraculous signs among the people.]

6.9.Opposition arose, however, from [members] {the priests} of the Synagogue

[of Freedmen as it was called– Jews of Cyrene and Alexandria as well as the provinces of Cilicia and Asia].

These men began to argue with [Stephen] {me},

6.10.but they could not stand up against [his wisdom or] the Spirit by whom [he] {I} spoke.

6.11.Then they [secretly persuaded some men to say] {said}, “We have heard [Stephen] {James} speak words of blasphemy against Moses and against [God] {sacrifice}.”

6.12.So they [stirred up the people and the elders and the teachers of the law. They] seized [Stephen] {me} and brought [him] {me} before the [Sanhedrin] {synagogue}.

6.13.They [produced false witnesses, who] testified, “This fellow never stops speaking against [this holy place and against the law] {sacrifice}”

6.14.For we have heard him say, that this [Jesus of Nazareth] {Spirit of God} will
[destroy this place and]
change the customs Moses handed down to us.


6.15.All who were sitting in the [Sanhedrin] {synagogue} looked intently at [Stephen] {me}
[, and they saw that his face was like the face of an angel].


Chapter 7

JAMES’S REPLY TO THE ACCUSATION THAT HE NEVER STOPS SPEAKING AGAINST ANIMAL SACRIFICE.  HE SAID "YOU ARE JUST LIKE YOUR FATHERS: YOU ALWAYS RESIST THE HOLY SPIRIT (Acts 7:51)

7.1[Then the high priest asked him, “Are these charges true?”]

7.2.To this {accusation} [he] {I} replied, “Brothers and fathers, listen to me! The [God of glory] {Spirit of God} appeared to our father Abraham while he was still in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran.

7.3.{He said}‘Leave your country and your people [,’ God said , ‘] and go to the land I will show you.’
7.4,So he left the land of the Chaldeans, and settled in Haran. After the death of his father, {the Spirit of} God sent him to [this land where you are now living] {the land of Canaan}

7.5.He gave him no inheritance [here] {there}, not even a foot of ground. But God promised him that he and his descendants after him would possess the land, even though at that time Abraham had no child.

7.6.{The Spirit of} God spoke to him in this way: ‘Your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own, and they will be enslaved and ill-treated for four hundred years.

7.7.But I will punish the nation they serve as slaves, [’God said, ‘] and afterwards they will come out of that country and worship me in this place.’

7.8.Then he gave Abraham the covenant of circumcision. And Abraham became the father of Isaac and circumcised him eight days after his birth. Later Isaac became the father of Jacob, and Jacob became the father of the twelve patriarchs.

7.9.Because the patriarchs were jealous of Joseph, they sold him as a slave into Egypt.
But {the Spirit of} God was with him.

7.10.and rescued him out of all his troubles. He gave Joseph wisdom and enabled him to gain the goodwill of Pharaoh king of Egypt; so he made him ruler over Egypt and all his palace.

7.11.Then a famine struck all Egypt and Canaan, bringing great suffering, and our fathers could not find food.

7.12.When Jacob heard there was grain in Egypt, the Spirit sent our fathers on their first visit.

7.13.On their second visit, Joseph told his brothers who he was, and Pharoah learned about Joseph’s family.

7.14.After this, Joseph sent for his father Jacob and his whole family, seventy-five in all.

7.15.Then Jacob went down to Egypt where he and our fathers died.
7.16.Their bodies were brought back to Shechem and placed in the tomb that Abraham had bought from the sons of Hamor at Shechem for a certain sum of money.

7.17.“As the time drew near for {the Spirit of} God to fulfil his promise to Abraham, the number of our people in Egypt greatly increased.

7.18.Then another king who knew nothing about Joseph became ruler of Egypt.

7.19.He dealt treacherously with our people and oppressed our forefathers by forcing them to throw out their newborn babies so that they would die.

7.20.At that time Moses was born, and he was [no ordinary child] {filled with the Spirit of God from birth}. For three months he was cared for in his father’s house.

7.21.When he was placed outside, Pharoah’s daughter took him and brought him up as her own son.

7.22.Moses was educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians and was powerful in speech and action.

7.23.“When Moses was forty years old, he decided to visit his fellow Israelites.

7.24.He saw one of them being ill-treated by an Egyptian, so he went to his defence and avenged him by killing the Egyptian.

7.25.[Moses thought that his own people would realise that God was using him to rescue them, but they did not.] (There is no mention of what Moses thought in Ex:2).

7.26.The next day, Moses came upon two Israelites who were fighting. He tried to reconcile them by saying, ‘Men you are brothers; why do you want to hurt each other?

7.27.But the man who was ill-treating the other pushed Moses aside and said, ‘Who made you ruler and judge over us?

7.28.Do you want to kill me as you killed the Egyptian yesterday?’

7.29.When Moses heard this, he fled to Midian, where he settled as a foreigner and had two sons.

7.30.“After forty years had passed, [an angel] {the Spirit of God} appeared to Moses in the flames of a burning bush in the desert near Mount Sinai.

7.31.[When he saw this, he was amazed at the sight. As he went over to look more closely,]

He heard the [Lord’s] {Spirit of God’s} voice: ‘I am the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.’

7.32.Moses trembled with fear [and did not dare to look]. (He had looked already).

7.33.Then the [Lord] {the Spirit of God} said to him, ‘Take off your sandals; the place where you are standing is holy ground.

7.34.I have indeed seen the oppression of my people in Egypt. I have heard their groaning and have come down to set them free. Now come, I will send you back to Egypt.’

7:35.“This is the [same Moses] {Spirit of God} whom they had rejected with the words, 

[‘who made you ruler and Judge?’ (Ex: 2:14; this only refers to two Hebrews who were fighting)] 

‘let us not hear the voice of the Lord our God, nor see this great fire any more, or we will die’. (Deut:18:16, see Acts 7:37).

[He was sent to be their ruler and deliverer by God himself, through the angel who appeared to Moses in the bush.]

7.36. [He] {The Spirit} led them out of Egypt and did wonders and signs in Egypt, at the Red Sea, and for forty years in the desert.

7.37.[This is that Moses who told the Israelites, ‘God will send you a prophet like me from among your own people.’] (Deut: 18:15 – presumably referring to Jesus, and next to Deut.18:16 which the writers originally had before them in Acts 7:35).

7.38.[He] {the Spirit} was in the assembly in the desert with [the angel] {Moses} who spoke to him on mount Sinai. And with our fathers, Moses received [living words] {the Spirit} to pass onto us.

7.39.“But our fathers refused to obey [him] {the Spirit}. Instead, they rejected him and in their hearts they turned back to Egypt.

7.40.They told Aaron, ‘Make us gods who will go before us.

[As for this fellow Moses who led us out of Egypt – we don’t know what has happened to him!’]

7.41.That was the time they made an idol in the form of a calf. They brought sacrifices to it and held a celebration in honour of what their hands had made.

7.42.But {the Spirit of} God turned away, and gave them over to [the worship of the heavenly bodies] {their sacrifices}. This agrees with what is written in the book of the prophets:
‘Did you bring me sacrifices and offerings for forty years in the desert, O house of Israel?

7.43.You have lifted up the shrine of Molech and the star of your God Rephan, the idols you made to worship. Therefore I will send you into exile beyond Babylon.

7.44.“Our forefathers had the tabernacle of the [Testimony] {Spirit of God} with them in the desert.
It had been made as {the Spirit of} God directed Moses, according to the pattern he had seen.

7.45.Having received the tabernacle, our fathers under Joshua brought it with them when they took the land from the nations the Spirit drove out before them. It remained in the land until the time of David,

7.46. who enjoyed the {Spirit of} God’s favour and asked that he might provide a dwelling place for [the God of Jacob] {him} .

7.47.But it was Solomon who built the house for him.

7.48.However, the [Most High] {Spirit of God} does not live in houses made by men. As the prophet says,

7.49. ‘Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool.
What kind of house will you build for me? says the Lord
Or where will my resting place be?
Has not my hand made all these things?’

7.51.“You stiff-necked people, with uncircumcised hearts and ears!
You are just like your fathers: you always resist the Holy Spirit.

7.52.Was there ever a prophet your fathers did not persecute?

[They even killed those that predicted the coming of the Righteous One. And now you have betrayed and murdered him.
7.53.you who have received the law that was put into effect through angels but have not obeyed it.”
7.54.When they heard this, they were furious and gnashed their teeth at him.
7.55.But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God.
7.56.Look, he said, “I see heaven open and the son of man standing at the right-hand of God.”]
7.57.At this they covered their ears and, yelling at the top of their voices, they all rushed at [him] {me},

7.58.{and} dragged [him] {me} out of the [city] {synagogue} [and began to stone him].

THE INTRODUCTION OF SAUL (PAUL) AND THE EXPANSION OF THE CHURCH – A FICTION

[Meanwhile the witnesses laid their clothes at the feet of a young man named Saul.
7.59.While they were stoning him, Stephen prayed, “Lord Jesus, receive my Spirit.”
7.60.Then he fell on his knees and cried out, “Lord do not hold this sin against them.”
When he had said this, he fell asleep.]


Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Chapter 17

Chapter 18

Chapter 19

Chapter 20

Chapter 21

Chapter 22

Chapter 23

Chapter 24

Chapter 25


Chapter 26


Thursday, October 03, 2013

The Epistle to the 'Romans'

Larry Hurtado wrote in his blog:http://larryhurtado.wordpress.com/2013/11/15/ancient-letters-and-ancient-christian-letters/ "One of Geoff’s questions was about length of letters. One analysis of many surviving Greek letters yielded these data: Papyri letters average 87 words, and hardly ever exceed 200 words. The 796 letters by Cicero range from 22 to 2530 words, with an average of 295 words. The 124 extant letters of Seneca range from 149 to 4134 words, averaging 955 words. By comparison, e.g., Romans (Paul’s longest) has 7101 words." This is a very definite proof that Romans was expanded from a letter by later writers into an early Christian treatise.  Even Seneca did not write a letter with 7101 words. Romans was originally very much smaller than the extant text.  This letter was not written by Paul to the Romans, but, in its original form, was written by James to the prophets of Jerusalem.  James was in Rome serving first under Claudius and then under Nero.  Romans was similar to the letter that James wrote to the 'Philippians'. (See http://raphaelgolb.blogspot.co.uk/2013/09/the-epistle-to-philippians.html )  

Larry acknowledges that he does not have the original manuscripts of the New Testament and that there is a time-gap between those and the extant texts. http://larryhurtado.wordpress.com/2014/01/16/original-text-a-recent-discussion/
This gives him a most uncomfortable problem regarding the authenticity of texts.  I posted to Larry's blog that a number of New Testament books were developed from earlier much shorter documents of a prophetic origin. Needless to say, our moderator did not approve. Never mind that it is fairly easy to pick out the literary forms of the earlier text from the later expanded additions.  Romans is one such book.  For example, Romans 7 is largely about the law, sin and death.  This is of a priestly origin and is mostly added.   Romans 8 is largely about the Spirit and is of James's work.  This is genuine original text and is of prophetic origin.  The two texts clearly contradict one another, and they were written by different authors, one a prophet, the other a priest, a Church Father, working for the Romans.     

In its original form, Romans Chapter 2 would have been highly critical of the priests, similar to that in the Epistle of James. (See http://raphaelgolb.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/a-new-new-testament-epistle-of-james.html

‘Romans’ was originally written for a Jewish world (a  prophet’s and priest’s world) of two spirits?   These are the two spirits that God gives to everyone in different measures.  There is the spirit of truth or light, and the spirit of deceit or falsehood or darkness.  This world was applicable to the writers of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Judaism in general.  


In 'Romans', there never was a promise of the gospel (verse 1. 2).  In verse 1.4, the editor relegates the Spirit from the Spirit of God to a power, and replaces it with Jesus Christ.  The Spirit was revealed at the creation. It was the voice of God.  The writer of original 'Romans', James, is highly critical of the Jerusalem priests who he says have ignored God's Spirit, and have listened to their own spirit of deceit.  When the Spirit declares a person’s spirit is pure, it is acceptable to God. If the Spirit declares a person’s spirit is impure it is not acceptable to God, and that person’s spirit is condemned by the Spirit.  This happens before death.  A person’s spirit is considered indestructible.  It can be raised to be with God in glory or it can be condemned to the abyss. There is no special “day” of judgement for spirits.  God’s judgement occurs immediately the spirit of a person rises at death.  But for priests there is a waiting period in sheol.

The core of 'Romans' is in chapter 4.  Moses, a prophet, was cleansed by the Spirit before he sacrificed. His cleansing was credited to God as a free gift, whereas the priest's cleansing for sins was credited to their sacrifices, as a reward.  So much for justification by faith.  Circumcision was not an issue, sacrifice was

In Romans chapter 8, the later writer hijacks the prophet's Spirit.  James's original message was that there was no condemnation for those in the Spirit. 

Chapter 1

THE PROMISED SPIRIT 

1.1.[Paul] {James},

[a servant of Christ Jesus],

called to be [an apostle] {a prophet} and set apart for the

[gospel] {Spirit} of God. 

– 1.2. the [gospel] {Spirit} he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy scriptures.

1.3.[regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David
1.4., and who through the Spirit of holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God, by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord.
1.5.Through him and for his name’s sake, we received grace and apostleship to call people from among all the Gentiles to the obedience that comes from faith.  
1.6.And you also are among those who are called to belong to Jesus Christ].

1.7.To all in [Rome] {Jerusalem} who are [loved by God and] called to be [saints] {prophets}: 

[Grace and peace] {glory} to you from God our [Father, and from the] Lord [Jesus Christ.] 

JAMES’ REMEMBRANCE OF THE PROPHETS IN JERUSALEM

1.8.[First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ  for all of you, because your faith is being reported all over the world]. 

1.9.[God] {The Lord}, whom I serve with my whole heart in [preaching] {proclaiming} [the gospel of his Son] {the Spirit} is my witness how constantly I remember you

1.10.in my prayers at all times;

[and I pray that now at last, by God’s will, the way may be opened for me to come to you. 
1.11.I long to see you so that I may impart to you some spiritual gift
1.12. - that is, that you and I may be mutually encouraged by each other’s faith. 
1.13.I do not want you to be unaware, brothers that I planned many times to come to you, but have been prevented from doing so until now, in order that I might have a harvest among you, just as I have had among the other Gentiles.
1.14.I am bound both to Gentiles and Jews, both to those who are wise and those who are foolish. 
1.15.That is why I am so eager to preach the gospel also to you who are at Rome
1.16.I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile. 
1.17.For in the gospel, a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last, just as it is written: “The righteous shall live by faith.”]. 

THE SPIRIT BEING REVEALED FROM HEAVEN WAS GOD

1.18.The [wrath] {Spirit} of God is being revealed from heaven against all the [godlessness and] wickedness of [men] {priests} who suppress the {spirit of} truth by their [wickedness] {spirit of deceit},

1.19.since [what may be known about] {the Spirit of} God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. 

1.20.For since the creation of the world, God's

[invisible qualities – his eternal power and divine nature -]

{Spirit} [have] {has} been clearly [seen] {heard}, being understood from what he has [made] {spoken}, so that [men] {priests} are without excuse.

1.21.For although they [knew] {heard the Spirit of} God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him, but their [thinking] {spirits of truth} became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened. 

1.22.Although they claimed to be [wise] {righteous}, they became [foolish] {impure}   

1.23.and exchanged the glory of the [immortal] {Spirit of} God for [images] {sacrifices}

[made to look like mortal man and]

{of} birds and animals [and reptiles].

1.24.Therefore God gave them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one another. 

1.25.They exchanged the truth of God for a lie

[, and worshipped and served created things rather than the Creator – who is for ever praised. Amen].

1.26.Because of [this] {their disobedience}, God gave them over to [shameful] {spirits of} lust[s].  Even their women exchanged [natural relations] {their spirits of truth} for [unnatural ones] {spirits of deceit}. 

1.27.In the same way the men also abandoned [natural relations with women] {their spirits of truth} and were [inflamed] {filled} with {spirits of} lust for one another. [Men] {priests} committed indecent acts with other [men] {priests}, and received in [themselves] {their bodies} the [due penalty] {spirit} [for their] {of} perversion. 

1.28.Furthermore, since they did not think it worth while to [retain the knowledge] {obey the Spirit} of God, he gave them over to [a depraved mind] {impure spirits}, to do what ought not to be done. 

1.29.They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed, and depravity.  They are full of {spirits of} envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips, slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing evil; they disobey their parents; they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless.
 
 1.32.Although they [know] {hear} [God’s righteous] {the Spirit’s} decree  that those who [do] {obey} such [things] {spirits} deserve [death] {judgement}, they not only continue to [do] {obey} these very [things] {spirits} but also approve of those who [practise] {obey} them.

Chapter 2

THE SPIRIT’S CONDEMNATION VERSUS THE PRIEST’S CONDEMNATION

2.1.[You] {Priests}, therefore, have no excuse, [you] {they} who [pass judgment on someone else] {condemn you}, for at whatever point [you] {they} [judge the other] {condemn}, [you] {they} [are] condemning [yourself] {themselves}, because [you] {they} who [pass judgment] {condemn} [do] {obey} [the same things] {impure spirits}. 

2.2.Now we know that God's [judgment] {condemnation} against those who do such things is based on his [righteousness] {purity}. 

2.3.So when [you, a mere man] {priests} [pass judgment on them] {condemn you} and yet [do] {obey} [the same things] {impure spirits}, [do you think you] {they} will {not} escape God's [judgment] {condemnation}? 

2.4.[Or do you] {They} show contempt for
[the riches of his kindness and patience, not realising that]
God's [kindness] {Spirit} that [leads] {calls} [you] {them} towards [repentance] {obedience}.

2.5.But because of [your] {their} stubbornness and [your] {their} [unrepentant] {disobedient} [heart] {spirit}, [you] {they} are storing up [wrath] {condemnation} against [yourself] {themselves} for the [day] {Spirit} of God's [wrath] {judgement}.

[, when his righteous judgment will be revealed.] 

2.6.{The Spirit of} God will [give to] {judge} each [person] {priest} according to [what he has done] {his obedience}.  

2.7.To those who [by persistence] {obey} in [doing good] {the Spirit}
[seek glory honour and immortality,]
he will [give] {declare} [eternal life] {pure}.

2.8.But for those who [are self-seeking, and who] reject the [truth] {Spirit} and [follow] {obey} [evil] {their spirit of deceit} there will be [wrath and anger] {condemnation}.

2.9.There will be [trouble and distress] {condemnation} for [every human being] {everyone} who [does evil] {disobeys the Spirit.}

[: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile;]

2.10.but glory [honour and peace] for everyone who [does good] {obeys the Spirit}:

2.11 to 3.17 - all fiction

[first for the Jew, then for the Gentile. 
2.11.For God does not show favouritism.
2.12.All who sin apart from the law will also perish apart from law, and all who sin under the law will be judged by the law. 
2.13.For it is not those who hear the law who are righteous in God's sight, but it is those who obey the law who will be declared righteous. 
2.14.Indeed, when Gentiles who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law  for themselves, even though they do not have the law,
2.15.since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts. 
2.16.This will take place on the day when God will judge men's secrets through Jesus Christ, as my gospel declares.
2.17.Now you, if you call yourself a Jew; if you rely on the law and brag about your relationship to God;
2.18.if you know his will and approve of what is superior because you are instructed by the law;
2.19.if you are convinced that you are a guide for the blind, a light for those who are in the dark,
2.20.an instructor of the deceitful, a teacher of infants, because you have in the law the embodiment of knowledge and truth –
2.21.you, then, who teach others, do you not teach yourself?  You who preach against stealing, do you steal? 
2.22.You who say that people should not commit adultery, do you commit adultery?  You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 
2.23.You who brag about the law, do you dishonour God by breaking the law? 
2.24.As it is written: "God's name is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you."
2.25.Circumcision has value if you observe the law, but if you break the law, you have become as though you had not been circumcised.
2.26.If those who are not circumcised keep the law's requirements, will they not be regarded as though they were circumcised? 
2.27.The one who is not circumcised physically   and yet obeys the law will condemn you who are a law-breaker, even though you sacrifice
have the written code and circumcision. 
2.28.A man is not a Jew if he is only one outwardly, nor is circumcision merely outward and physical. 
2.29.No, a man is a Jew if he is one inwardly ; and circumcision is circumcision of the heart,
by the Spirit, not by the written code. Such a man's praise is not from men, but from God.]

Chapter 3

3.1 to 3.17 – all fiction

3.1.[One day, Peter and John were going up to the temple at the time of prayer at three in the afternoon.
3.2.Now a man crippled from birth was being carried to the temple gate called Beautiful, where he was put came every day to beg from those going in to the temple courts.
3.3.When he saw Peter and John about to enter, he asked them for money.
3.4.Peter looked straight at him, as did John. Then Peter said, "Look at us!"
3.5.So the man gave them his attention, expecting to get something from them.
3.6.Then Peter said, "Silver or gold I do not have, but what I do have I give you. In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, walk."
3.7.Taking him by the right hand, Peter helped him up, and instantly the man’s feet and ankles became strong.
3.8.He jumped to his feet, and began to walk. Then he went with them into the temple courts, walking and jumping, and praising God.
3.9.When all the people saw him walking and] praising God,
3.10.they recognised him as the same man who used to sit begging at the temple gate called Beautiful, and they were filled with wonder and amazement at what had happened to him.
3.11.While the beggar held on to Peter and John, all the people were astonished
and came running to them in the place called Solomon's Colonnade.
3.12.When Peter saw this, he said to them: "Men of Israel, why does this surprise you? Why do you stare at us as if by our own power or godliness we had made this man walk?
3.13.The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his servant Jesus. You handed him over to be killed, and you disowned him before Pilate, though he decided to let him go.
3.14.You disowned the Holy and righteous One and asked that a murderer be released to you.
3.15.You killed the author of life, but God raised him from the dead. We are witnesses of this.
3.16. By faith in the name of Jesus, this man whom you see and know was made strong. It is Jesus’s name and the faith that comes through him that has given this complete healing to him, as you can all see.
3.17.Now brothers, I know that you acted in ignorance, as did your leaders].


 (continued from 2.10)

3.18.But this is how God fulfilled what he had foretold through all the prophets.

[saying that his Christ would suffer.
3.19.Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord,
3.20.and that he may send the Christ who has been appointed for you - even Jesus.
3.21.He must remain in heaven until the time comes for God to restore everything, as he promised long ago through his prophets.
3.22.For Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own people; you must listen to everything he tells you.
3.23.Anyone who does not listen to him will be completely cut off from among his people.’
3.24.Indeed, all the prophets from Samuel on, as many as have spoken, have foretold these days.]

3.25.And you are heirs of the prophets and of the covenant God made with your fathers.

He said to Abraham, ‘Through your offspring all peoples of the earth will be blessed.’
3.26.[When God raised up his servant, he sent him first to you to bless you by turning each of you from your wicked ways.”]

Chapter 4

MOSES NOT CLEANSED BY SACRIFICE BUT BY THE SPIRIT (the core of 'Romans')

4.1.What then shall we say that [Abraham] {Moses}, our forefather, discovered in this matter?

4.2. If, in fact, [Abraham] {Moses} was [justified] {cleansed} by [works] {sacrifice}, he had something to boast about -- but not before God.

4.3.[What does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness."]

4.4. Now when a [man] {priest} [works] {sacrifices}, his [wages] {cleansing} [are] {is} not credited to [him] {God} as a gift, but as [an obligation] {a reward}.

4.5.However, to the [man] {prophet} who does not [work] {sacrifice}, but [trusts] {obeys} [God] {the Spirit} who [justifies] {cleanses} the [wicked} {impure}, his [faith] {cleansing} is credited {to God} [as righteousness].

4.6.[David says the same thing when he speaks of the blessedness of the man to whom God credits righteousness apart from works:
4.7."Blessed are they whose transgressions are forgiven, whose sins are covered.
4.8.Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will never count against him."
4.9.Is this blessedness only for the circumcised, or also for the uncircumcised?
We have been saying that Abraham's]

{Moses’} [faith] {cleansing} was credited to [him as righteousness] {God}.

4.10.Under what circumstances was it credited? Was it after he [was circumcised] {sacrificed}, or before? It was not after, but before!

4.11.And he received

[the sign of the circumcision,]

a seal of the [righteousness] {Spirit}

[that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised]

{before he sacrificed}.  So then, he is the father of all who [believe] {obey the Spirit} but have not [been circumcised] {sacrificed}, in order that [righteousness] {cleansing} might be credited to [them] {God}.

4.12.[And he is also the father of the circumcised who not only are circumcised but who also walk in the footsteps of the faith that our father Abraham had before he was circumcised.
4.13.It was not through law that Abraham and his offspring received the promise that he would be the heir of the world, but through the righteousness that comes by faith.
4.14.For if those who live by law are heirs, faith has no value and the promise is worthless,
4.15.because law brings wrath, and where there is no law there is no transgression.
4.16.Therefore, the promise comes by faith, so that it may be guaranteed to all Abraham's offspring - not only to those who are of the law but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham. He is the father of us all.
4.17.As it is written: "I have made you a father of many nations." He is our father in the sight of God, in whom he believed – the God who gives life to the dead and calls things that are not as though they were.
4:18.Against all hope, Abraham in hope believed, and so became the father of many nations, just as it had been said to him, "So shall your offspring be."
4.19. Without weakening in his faith, he faced the fact that his body was as good as dead -- since he was about a hundred years old -- and that Sarah's womb was also dead.
4.20.Yet he did not waver through unbelief regarding the promise of God, but was strengthened in his faith and gave glory to God,
4.21.being fully persuaded that God had power to do what he had promised.
4.22.This is why "it was credited to him as righteousness."
4.23.The words "it was credited to him" were spoken not for him alone,
4.24.but also for us, to whom God will credit righteousness -- to us who believe in him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead.]


Chapter 5

5.1 to 5.19 - justification by faith a fabricated doctrine

5.1.[Therefore, since we have been justified through faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, 
5.2.through whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we now stand. And we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God.
5.3.Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering  produces perseverance;  
5.4.perseverance character; and character hope.
5.5.And hope does not disappoint us,
because he has poured out his love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit he has given us. 
5.6.You see, at just the right time, when we were still powerless, Christ died for the ungodly.
5.7.Very rarely will anyone die for a righteous man, though for a good man someone might possibly dare to die. 
5.8.But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us.  
5.9.Since we have now been justified by his blood, how much more shall we be saved from God’s wrath through him! 
5.10.For if, when we were God’s enemies we were reconciled to him through the death of his Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through his life! 
5.11.Not only is this so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation.
5.12.Therefore, just as sin entered
the world through one man, and in this way death came to all men, because all sinned,
5.13. – for before the law was given, sin was in the world.  But sin is not taken into account when there is no law. 
5.14.Nevertheless, death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, even over those who did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam, who was originally a pattern of the one to come.
5.15.But the gift is not like the trespass.  For if the many died  by the trespass of the one man, how much more did God’s grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many.
5.16.Again, the gift of God is not like the result of one man’s sin:  The judgement followed one sin and brought condemnation, but the gift followed many trespasses and brought justification.
5.17.For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive God’s abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ.
5.18.Consequently, just as the result of one trespass was condemnation for all men, so also
the result of one act of righteousness was justification that brings life for all men.   
5.19.For just as through the disobedience of the one man, the many were made sinners, so also through obedience of the one man, the many will be made righteous].

5.20 follows-on from 4.11.  The law involved sacrifices which were added by Moses to reveal the spirit of deceit or falsehood in the Israelites and hence reveal the Spirit of God by contrast.

5.20.The law was added so that the [trespass] {spirit of deceit} might [increase] {be revealed}. But where [sin] {the spirit of deceit} [increased] {was revealed}, [grace] {the Spirit} [increased] {was revealed} all the more.

5.21.[So that, just as sin reigned in death, so also grace might reign through righteousness to bring eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.]

Chapter 6


6.1.[What shall we say, then?  Shall we go on sinning, so that grace may increase? 
6.2.By no means!  We died to sin; how can we live in it any longer?  
6.3.Or don’t you know that all of us who were baptised into Christ Jesus were baptised into his death.
6.4.We were therefore buried with him through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of God the Father, we too may live a new life.
6.5.if we have been united with him like this in his death, we will certainly also be united with him in his resurrection.
6.6.For we know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves to sin –
6.7.because anyone who has died has been freed from sin.
6.8.Now if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him.
6.9.For we know that since Christ was raised from the dead, he cannot die again; death no longer has mastery over him. 
6.10.The death he died, he died to sin once for all; but the life he lives, he lives to God
6.11.In the same way, count yourselves dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus.] 

DO NOT LET THE SPIRIT OF DECEIT REIGN IN YOUR MORTAL BODY

6.12 continues from 5.20

6.12.Therefore do not let [sin] {the spirit of deceit} reign in your mortal body so that you obey its [evil] {impure} desires. 

6.13.[Do not offer the parts of your body to sin, as instruments of wickedness, but rather offer yourselves to God,as those who have been brought from death to life; as instruments of righteousness. 
6.14.For sin shall not be your master, because you are not under law, but under grace.
6.15.What then?  Shall we disobey because we are not under law but under grace. By no means! 
6.16.Don't you know that when you offer yourselves to someone to obey him as slaves, you are slaves to the one whom you obey. 
 -- whether you are slaves to sin, which leads to death, or to obedience, which leads to righteousness?
6.17.But thanks be to God that, though you used to be slaves to sin, you wholeheartedly obeyed the form of teaching to which you were entrusted.
6.18.You have been set free from sin and have become slaves to righteousness.
6.19.I put this in human terms because you are weak in your natural selves.  Just as you used to offer the parts of your body in slavery to impurity, so now offer them in slavery to righteousness leading to holiness. 
6.20.When you were slaves to sin, you were free from the control of righteousness. 
6.21.What benefit did you reap at that time from the things you are now ashamed of? 
6.22.Those things result in death!  But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves to God, the benefit you reap leads to holiness,and the result is eternal life. 
6.23.For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in the Christ Jesus our Lord].  

Chapter 7


 7.1.[Do you not know, brothers – for I am speaking to men who know the law -- that the law has authority over a man as long as he lives?
7.2.For example, by law a married woman is bound to her husband as long as he is alive, but if her husband dies, she is released from the law of marriage.
7.3.So then, if she marries another man while her husband is still alive, she is called an adulteress.  But if her husband dies, she is released from that law and is not an adulteress, even though she marries another man.
7.4.So, my brothers, you also died to the law through the body of Christ that you might belong to another, to him who was raised from the dead, in order that we might bear fruit to God.] 

7.5 follows on from 6.12

7.5.For when we were controlled by the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit}, the [sinful} {impure} [passions] {powers} aroused by the [law] {spirit of deceit} were at work in our bodies. 

7.6.[But now, by dying to what once bound us we have been released from the law so that we serve in the new way of the Spirit and not in the old way of the written code.
7.7.What shall we say, then?  Is the law sin?  Certainly not! Indeed I would not have known what sin was except through the law. For I would not have known what coveting really was if the law had not said, "Do not covet."
7.8.But sin, seizing the opportunity, afforded by the commandment,
produced in me every kind of covetous desire.  For apart from law, sin is dead. 
7.9.Once I was alive apart from the law; but when the commandment came, sin sprang to life and I died. 
7.10.I found that the very commandment that was intended to bring life actually brought death.
7.11.For sin, seizing the opportunity afforded by the commandment, deceived me ,and through the commandment put me to death].
7.12.So then, the law is holy, and the commandment is holy righteous and good. Did the law then, become unspiritual to me? 
7.13.Did that which is good, then, become death to me? By no means!  But in order that sin might be recognised as sin, it produced death in me through what was good so that through the commandment sin might become utterly sinful. 
7.14.We know that the law is spiritual; but I am unspiritual, sold as a slave to sin. 
7.15.I do not understand what I do.  For what I want to do, I do not do, but what I hate I do.    
7.16.And if I do what I do not want to do, I agree that the law is good.
7.18.I know that nothing good lives in me, that is my sinful nature.
For I have the desire to [do what is good, but I cannot carry it out. 
7.19.For what I do is not the good what I want to do; no, the evil what I do not want to do -- this I keep on doing. 
7.20.Now if I do what I do not want to do, it is no longer I who do it, but it is sin living in me that does it.
7.21. So I find this law at work: When I want to do good, evil is right there with me. 
7.22. For in my inner being I delight in God’s law;
7.23. but I see another law at work in the members of my body, waging war against the law of my mind, making me a prisoner of the law of sin at work within my members. 
7.24. What a wretched man I am!  Who will rescue me from this body of death? 
7.25. Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord!  So then, I myself in my mind am a slave to God’s law, but in the sinful nature a slave to the law of sin].

Chapter 8


NO CONDEMNATION FOR THOSE WHO ARE IN THE SPIRIT

8.1.Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are IN [Christ Jesus] {the Spirit}.

8.2.[because through Christ Jesus the law of the Spirit of life set me free from the law of sin and death.]

8.3.For what [the law] {our spirit of truth} was powerless to do in that it was [weakened] {polluted} by the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit}, God did by sending his own [Son] {Spirit}
[in the likeness of sinful man]
to [be a sin offering] {cleanse}  

[And so he condemned sin in sinful man,
8.4.in order that the righteous requirements of the law might be fully met in]

us, who do not [live according to] {obey} the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit} but [according to] {obey} the Spirit {of God}.  

8.5.Those who [live according to] {obey} their [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit} [have their minds set on] {do} what that [nature] {spirit} desires; but those who [live in accordance with] {obey} the Spirit [have their minds set on] {do} what the Spirit desires. 

8.6.The [mind of sinful man] {spirit of deceit} is [death] {condemned}, but the [mind] {spirit of truth} controlled by the Spirit {of God} is [life and peace] {freed}.

8.7.The [sinful mind] {spirit of deceit} is hostile to {the Spirit of} God. It does not submit to God’s [law] {Spirit}, nor can it do so. 

8.8.Those controlled by the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit} cannot please God.

8.9.You, however, are controlled not by the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit} but by the Spirit, if the Spirit of God lives in you. 

[And if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ. 
8.10.But if Christ is in you, your body is
dead because of sin yet your spirit is alive because of righteousness.
8.11.And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead is living in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit, who lives in you.
8.12.Therefore brothers, we have an obligation, but it is not to the sinful nature, to live according, to it,
8.13.For if you live according to the sinful nature, you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the misdeeds of the body, you will live,
8.14.because those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.
8.15.For you did not receive a spirit that makes you a slave again to fear, but you received the Spirit of sonship. And by him we cry, "Abba, Father."
8.16.The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are God's children. 
8.17.Now if we are children, then we are heirs -- heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ, if indeed we share in his sufferings in order that we may also share in his glory.]  



THE SPIRIT’S GLORY WILL BE REVEALED

8.18.I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in [us] {the Spirit}. 

8.19.[The creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 
8.2O.For the creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it,
8.21.that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God.
8.22.We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time. 
8.23.Not only so, but we ourselves ,who have  the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies. 
8.24.For in this hope we were saved.  But hope that is seen is no hope at all.  Who hopes for what he already has?
8.25.But if we hope for what we do not yet have, we wait for it patiently.
8.26.In the same way,]

8.26.The Spirit helps us in our weakness.  We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express. 

8.27.[And we know that in all things the Spirit of God works for the good of those who believe him, who have been called according to his purpose. 
8.28.For those God foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of sons, that they might be many brothers. 
8.29.And those he predestined, he also called; those he called, he also justified; those he justified, he also glorified.]

8.31.What, then, shall we say in response to this?  If {the Spirit of} God is for us, who can be against us? 

8.32.[He who did not spare his own Son, but gave him up for us all,  - how will he not also, along with him, graciously give us all things? 
8.33.Who will bring any charge against those whom God has chosen? 
It is the God who justifies.
8.34.Who is he that condemns?  Christ Jesus who died – more than that, who was raised to life – is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us.]

8.35.Who shall separate us from the [love] {Spirit} of [Christ] {God}?  Shall trouble or hardship or persecution or famine or nakedness or danger or sword? 

8.36.[As it is written: "For your sake we face death all day long; we are considered as sheep to be slaughtered."]

8.37.No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who [forgives] {cleanses} us. 

8.38.For I am convinced that [neither death nor life,] neither angels nor demons, [neither the present nor the future,] nor any powers,

8.39.[neither height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation,]

will be able to separate us from the [love] {Spirit} of God


[that is in Christ Jesus our Lord].

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

A COMPLETE INTERPOLATION

16.1.[I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a servant of the church in Cenchrea. 
16.2.I ask you to receive her in the Lord and to give her any help she may need from you, for she has been a great help to many people, including me. 
16.3.Greet Priscilla and Aquila, my fellow-workers, in the Lord. 
16.4.They risked their lives for me.  Not only I, but all the assemblies of the Gentiles are grateful to them. 
16.5.Greet also the assembly that meets at their house. Greet my dear friend Epenetus, who was the first convert to Christ in Asia. 
16.6.Greet Mary, who worked very hard, in the Lord for you. 
16.7.Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives who have been in prison with me. They are outstanding among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was. 
16.8.Greet Ampliatus, whom I love, in the Lord. 
16.9.Greet Urbanus, our fellow-worker, in the Lord, and my dear friend Stachys. 
16.10.Greet Apelles, tested and approved, in the Lord. Greet those who belong to the household of Aristobulus. 
16.11.Greet Herodian, my relative. 
Greet those in the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 
16.12.Greet Tryphena and Tryphosa, those women who work hard, in the Lord. Greet my dear friend Persis, another woman who has worked very hard, in the Lord. 
16.13.Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother, who has been a mother to me, too. 
16.14.Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas and the brothers with them. 
16.15.Greet Philologus, Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas and all the saints with them. 
16.16.Greet one another with a holy kiss. 
All the assemblies of Christ send greetings.
16.17.I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in your way that are contrary to the teaching you have learned. Keep away from them. 
16.18.For such people are not serving our Lord Christ, but their own appetites.  By smooth talk and flattery they deceive the minds of na├»ve people. 
16.19.Everyone has heard about your obedience so I am full of joy over you;
but I want you to be wise about what is good and innocent about what is evil. 
16.20.The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. 
16.21.Timothy, my fellow-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my relatives.
16.22.I, Tertius who wrote down this letter, greet you in the Lord. 
16.23.Gaius, whose hospitality I and the whole church here enjoy, sends you his greetings.
16.24.Erastus, who is the city's director of public works, and our brother Quartus send you their greetings.  
16.25.Now to him who is able to establish you by my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery hidden for long ages past,
16.26.but now revealed…and made known through the prophetic writings…by the command of the eternal God, so that all nations might believe and obey him –
16.27.to the only wise God be glory for ever!  Amen.]