Thursday, October 03, 2013

The Epistle to the 'Romans'

Larry Hurtado wrote in his blog:http://larryhurtado.wordpress.com/2013/11/15/ancient-letters-and-ancient-christian-letters/ "One of Geoff’s questions was about length of letters. One analysis of many surviving Greek letters yielded these data: Papyri letters average 87 words, and hardly ever exceed 200 words. The 796 letters by Cicero range from 22 to 2530 words, with an average of 295 words. The 124 extant letters of Seneca range from 149 to 4134 words, averaging 955 words. By comparison, e.g., Romans (Paul’s longest) has 7101 words." This is a very definite proof that Romans was expanded from a letter by later writers into an early Christian treatise.  Even Seneca did not write a letter with 7101 words. Romans was originally very much smaller than the extant text.  This letter was not written by Paul to the Romans, but, in its original form, was written by James to the prophets of Jerusalem.  James was in Rome serving first under Claudius and then under Nero.  Romans was similar to the letter that James wrote to the 'Philippians'. (See http://raphaelgolb.blogspot.co.uk/2013/09/the-epistle-to-philippians.html )  

Larry acknowledges that he does not have the original manuscripts of the New Testament and that there is a time-gap between those and the extant texts. http://larryhurtado.wordpress.com/2014/01/16/original-text-a-recent-discussion/
This gives him a most uncomfortable problem regarding the authenticity of texts.  I posted to Larry's blog that a number of New Testament books were developed from earlier much shorter documents of a prophetic origin. Needless to say, our moderator did not approve. Never mind that it is fairly easy to pick out the literary forms of the earlier text from the later expanded additions.  Romans is one such book.  For example, Romans 7 is largely about the law, sin and death, and is of a priestly origin.  The writers/editors were not Jewish priests, but the second century Church Fathers of Caesarea.  Romans 8 is largely about the Spirit and is of James's work.  This is genuine original text and is of prophetic origin.  The two texts clearly contradict one another.  They were written by different authors, one a prophet, the other a priest, a Church Father, working to please the Romans.     

In its original form, Romans Chapter 2 would have been highly critical of the priests, similar to that in the Epistle of James. (See http://raphaelgolb.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/a-new-new-testament-epistle-of-james.html

‘Romans’ was originally written for a Jewish world (a  prophet’s and priest’s world) of two spirits?   These are the two spirits that God gives to everyone in different measures.  There is the spirit of truth or light, and the spirit of deceit or falsehood or darkness.  This world was applicable to the writers of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Judaism in general.  


In 'Romans', there never was a promise of the gospel (verse 1. 2).  In verse 1.4, the editor relegates the Spirit from the Spirit of God to a power, and replaces it with Jesus Christ.  The Spirit was revealed at the creation. It was the voice of God.  The writer of original 'Romans', James, is highly critical of the Jerusalem priests who he says have ignored God's Spirit, and have listened to their own spirit of deceit.  When the Spirit declares a person’s spirit is pure, it is acceptable to God. If the Spirit declares a person’s spirit is impure it is not acceptable to God, and that person’s spirit is condemned by the Spirit.  This happens before death.  A person’s spirit is considered indestructible.  It can be raised to be with God in glory or it can be condemned to the abyss. There is no special “day” of judgement for spirits.  God’s judgement occurs immediately the spirit of a person rises at death.  But for priests there is a waiting period in sheol.

The core of 'Romans' is in chapter 4.  Moses, a prophet, was cleansed by the Spirit before he sacrificed. His cleansing was credited to God as a free gift, whereas the priest's cleansing for sins was credited to their sacrifices, as a reward.  So much for justification by faith.  Circumcision was not an issue, sacrifice was

In Romans chapter 8, the later writer hijacks the prophet's Spirit.  James's original message was that there was no condemnation for those in the Spirit. 

Chapter 1

THE PROMISED SPIRIT 

1.1.[Paul] {James},

[a servant of Christ Jesus],

called to be [an apostle] {a prophet} and set apart for the

[gospel] {Spirit} of God. 

– 1.2. the [gospel] {Spirit} he promised beforehand through his prophets in the Holy scriptures.

1.3.[regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David
1.4., and who through the Spirit of holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God, by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord.
1.5.Through him and for his name’s sake, we received grace and apostleship to call people from among all the Gentiles to the obedience that comes from faith.  
1.6.And you also are among those who are called to belong to Jesus Christ].

1.7.To all in [Rome] {Jerusalem} who are [loved by God and] called to be [saints] {prophets}: 

[Grace and peace] {glory} to you from God our [Father, and from the] Lord [Jesus Christ.] 

JAMES’ REMEMBRANCE OF THE PROPHETS IN JERUSALEM

1.8.[First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ  for all of you, because your faith is being reported all over the world]. 

1.9.[God] {The Lord}, whom I serve with my whole heart in [preaching] {proclaiming} [the gospel of his Son] {the Spirit} is my witness how constantly I remember you

1.10.in my prayers at all times;

[and I pray that now at last, by God’s will, the way may be opened for me to come to you. 
1.11.I long to see you so that I may impart to you some spiritual gift
1.12. - that is, that you and I may be mutually encouraged by each other’s faith. 
1.13.I do not want you to be unaware, brothers that I planned many times to come to you, but have been prevented from doing so until now, in order that I might have a harvest among you, just as I have had among the other Gentiles.
1.14.I am bound both to Gentiles and Jews, both to those who are wise and those who are foolish. 
1.15.That is why I am so eager to preach the gospel also to you who are at Rome
1.16.I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile. 
1.17.For in the gospel, a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last, just as it is written: “The righteous shall live by faith.”]. 

THE SPIRIT BEING REVEALED FROM HEAVEN WAS GOD

1.18.The [wrath] {Spirit} of God is being revealed from heaven against all the [godlessness and] wickedness of [men] {priests} who suppress the {spirit of} truth by their [wickedness] {spirit of deceit},

1.19.since [what may be known about] {the Spirit of} God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. 

1.20.For since the creation of the world, God's

[invisible qualities – his eternal power and divine nature -]

{Spirit} [have] {has} been clearly [seen] {heard}, being understood from what he has [made] {spoken}, so that [men] {priests} are without excuse.

1.21.For although they [knew] {heard the Spirit of} God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him, but their [thinking] {spirits of truth} became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened. 

1.22.Although they claimed to be [wise] {righteous}, they became [foolish] {impure}   

1.23.and exchanged the glory of the [immortal] {Spirit of} God for [images] {sacrifices}

[made to look like mortal man and]

{of} birds and animals [and reptiles].

1.24.Therefore God gave them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one another. 

1.25.They exchanged the truth of God for a lie

[, and worshipped and served created things rather than the Creator – who is for ever praised. Amen].

1.26.Because of [this] {their disobedience}, God gave them over to [shameful] {spirits of} lust[s].  Even their women exchanged [natural relations] {their spirits of truth} for [unnatural ones] {spirits of deceit}. 

1.27.In the same way the men also abandoned [natural relations with women] {their spirits of truth} and were [inflamed] {filled} with {spirits of} lust for one another. [Men] {priests} committed indecent acts with other [men] {priests}, and received in [themselves] {their bodies} the [due penalty] {spirit} [for their] {of} perversion. 

1.28.Furthermore, since they did not think it worth while to [retain the knowledge] {obey the Spirit} of God, he gave them over to [a depraved mind] {impure spirits}, to do what ought not to be done. 

1.29.They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed, and depravity.  They are full of {spirits of} envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips, slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing evil; they disobey their parents; they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless.
 
 1.32.Although they [know] {hear} [God’s righteous] {the Spirit’s} decree  that those who [do] {obey} such [things] {spirits} deserve [death] {judgement}, they not only continue to [do] {obey} these very [things] {spirits} but also approve of those who [practise] {obey} them.

Chapter 2

THE SPIRIT’S CONDEMNATION VERSUS THE PRIEST’S CONDEMNATION

2.1.[You] {Priests}, therefore, have no excuse, [you] {they} who [pass judgment on someone else] {condemn you}, for at whatever point [you] {they} [judge the other] {condemn}, [you] {they} [are] condemning [yourself] {themselves}, because [you] {they} who [pass judgment] {condemn} [do] {obey} [the same things] {impure spirits}. 

2.2.Now we know that God's [judgment] {condemnation} against those who do such things is based on his [righteousness] {purity}. 

2.3.So when [you, a mere man] {priests} [pass judgment on them] {condemn you} and yet [do] {obey} [the same things] {impure spirits}, [do you think you] {they} will {not} escape God's [judgment] {condemnation}? 

2.4.[Or do you] {They} show contempt for
[the riches of his kindness and patience, not realising that]
God's [kindness] {Spirit} that [leads] {calls} [you] {them} towards [repentance] {obedience}.

2.5.But because of [your] {their} stubbornness and [your] {their} [unrepentant] {disobedient} [heart] {spirit}, [you] {they} are storing up [wrath] {condemnation} against [yourself] {themselves} for the [day] {Spirit} of God's [wrath] {judgement}.

[, when his righteous judgment will be revealed.] 

2.6.{The Spirit of} God will [give to] {judge} each [person] {priest} according to [what he has done] {his obedience}.  

2.7.To those who [by persistence] {obey} in [doing good] {the Spirit}
[seek glory honour and immortality,]
he will [give] {declare} [eternal life] {pure}.

2.8.But for those who [are self-seeking, and who] reject the [truth] {Spirit} and [follow] {obey} [evil] {their spirit of deceit} there will be [wrath and anger] {condemnation}.

2.9.There will be [trouble and distress] {condemnation} for [every human being] {everyone} who [does evil] {disobeys the Spirit.}

[: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile;]

2.10.but glory [honour and peace] for everyone who [does good] {obeys the Spirit}:

2.11 to 3.17 - all fiction

[first for the Jew, then for the Gentile. 
2.11.For God does not show favouritism.
2.12.All who sin apart from the law will also perish apart from law, and all who sin under the law will be judged by the law. 
2.13.For it is not those who hear the law who are righteous in God's sight, but it is those who obey the law who will be declared righteous. 
2.14.Indeed, when Gentiles who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law  for themselves, even though they do not have the law,
2.15.since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts. 
2.16.This will take place on the day when God will judge men's secrets through Jesus Christ, as my gospel declares.
2.17.Now you, if you call yourself a Jew; if you rely on the law and brag about your relationship to God;
2.18.if you know his will and approve of what is superior because you are instructed by the law;
2.19.if you are convinced that you are a guide for the blind, a light for those who are in the dark,
2.20.an instructor of the deceitful, a teacher of infants, because you have in the law the embodiment of knowledge and truth –
2.21.you, then, who teach others, do you not teach yourself?  You who preach against stealing, do you steal? 
2.22.You who say that people should not commit adultery, do you commit adultery?  You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 
2.23.You who brag about the law, do you dishonour God by breaking the law? 
2.24.As it is written: "God's name is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you."
2.25.Circumcision has value if you observe the law, but if you break the law, you have become as though you had not been circumcised.
2.26.If those who are not circumcised keep the law's requirements, will they not be regarded as though they were circumcised? 
2.27.The one who is not circumcised physically   and yet obeys the law will condemn you who are a law-breaker, even though you sacrifice
have the written code and circumcision. 
2.28.A man is not a Jew if he is only one outwardly, nor is circumcision merely outward and physical. 
2.29.No, a man is a Jew if he is one inwardly ; and circumcision is circumcision of the heart,
by the Spirit, not by the written code. Such a man's praise is not from men, but from God.]

Chapter 3

3.1 to 3.17 – all fiction

3.1.[One day, Peter and John were going up to the temple at the time of prayer at three in the afternoon.
3.2.Now a man crippled from birth was being carried to the temple gate called Beautiful, where he was put came every day to beg from those going in to the temple courts.
3.3.When he saw Peter and John about to enter, he asked them for money.
3.4.Peter looked straight at him, as did John. Then Peter said, "Look at us!"
3.5.So the man gave them his attention, expecting to get something from them.
3.6.Then Peter said, "Silver or gold I do not have, but what I do have I give you. In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, walk."
3.7.Taking him by the right hand, Peter helped him up, and instantly the man’s feet and ankles became strong.
3.8.He jumped to his feet, and began to walk. Then he went with them into the temple courts, walking and jumping, and praising God.
3.9.When all the people saw him walking and] praising God,
3.10.they recognised him as the same man who used to sit begging at the temple gate called Beautiful, and they were filled with wonder and amazement at what had happened to him.
3.11.While the beggar held on to Peter and John, all the people were astonished
and came running to them in the place called Solomon's Colonnade.
3.12.When Peter saw this, he said to them: "Men of Israel, why does this surprise you? Why do you stare at us as if by our own power or godliness we had made this man walk?
3.13.The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his servant Jesus. You handed him over to be killed, and you disowned him before Pilate, though he decided to let him go.
3.14.You disowned the Holy and righteous One and asked that a murderer be released to you.
3.15.You killed the author of life, but God raised him from the dead. We are witnesses of this.
3.16. By faith in the name of Jesus, this man whom you see and know was made strong. It is Jesus’s name and the faith that comes through him that has given this complete healing to him, as you can all see.
3.17.Now brothers, I know that you acted in ignorance, as did your leaders].


 (continued from 2.10)

3.18.But this is how God fulfilled what he had foretold through all the prophets.

[saying that his Christ would suffer.
3.19.Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord,
3.20.and that he may send the Christ who has been appointed for you - even Jesus.
3.21.He must remain in heaven until the time comes for God to restore everything, as he promised long ago through his prophets.
3.22.For Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own people; you must listen to everything he tells you.
3.23.Anyone who does not listen to him will be completely cut off from among his people.’
3.24.Indeed, all the prophets from Samuel on, as many as have spoken, have foretold these days.]

3.25.And you are heirs of the prophets and of the covenant God made with your fathers.

He said to Abraham, ‘Through your offspring all peoples of the earth will be blessed.’
3.26.[When God raised up his servant, he sent him first to you to bless you by turning each of you from your wicked ways.”]

Chapter 4

MOSES NOT CLEANSED BY SACRIFICE BUT BY THE SPIRIT (the core of 'Romans')

4.1.What then shall we say that [Abraham] {Moses}, our forefather, discovered in this matter?

4.2. If, in fact, [Abraham] {Moses} was [justified] {cleansed} by [works] {sacrifice}, he had something to boast about -- but not before God.

4.3.[What does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness."]

4.4. Now when a [man] {priest} [works] {sacrifices}, his [wages] {cleansing} [are] {is} not credited to [him] {God} as a gift, but as [an obligation] {a reward}.

4.5.However, to the [man] {prophet} who does not [work] {sacrifice}, but [trusts] {obeys} [God] {the Spirit} who [justifies] {cleanses} the [wicked} {impure}, his [faith] {cleansing} is credited {to God} [as righteousness].

4.6.[David says the same thing when he speaks of the blessedness of the man to whom God credits righteousness apart from works:
4.7."Blessed are they whose transgressions are forgiven, whose sins are covered.
4.8.Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will never count against him."
4.9.Is this blessedness only for the circumcised, or also for the uncircumcised?
We have been saying that Abraham's]

{Moses’} [faith] {cleansing} was credited to [him as righteousness] {God}.

4.10.Under what circumstances was it credited? Was it after he [was circumcised] {sacrificed}, or before? It was not after, but before!

4.11.And he received

[the sign of the circumcision,]

a seal of the [righteousness] {Spirit}

[that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised]

{before he sacrificed}.  So then, he is the father of all who [believe] {obey the Spirit} but have not [been circumcised] {sacrificed}, in order that [righteousness] {cleansing} might be credited to [them] {God}.

4.12.[And he is also the father of the circumcised who not only are circumcised but who also walk in the footsteps of the faith that our father Abraham had before he was circumcised.
4.13.It was not through law that Abraham and his offspring received the promise that he would be the heir of the world, but through the righteousness that comes by faith.
4.14.For if those who live by law are heirs, faith has no value and the promise is worthless,
4.15.because law brings wrath, and where there is no law there is no transgression.
4.16.Therefore, the promise comes by faith, so that it may be guaranteed to all Abraham's offspring - not only to those who are of the law but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham. He is the father of us all.
4.17.As it is written: "I have made you a father of many nations." He is our father in the sight of God, in whom he believed – the God who gives life to the dead and calls things that are not as though they were.
4:18.Against all hope, Abraham in hope believed, and so became the father of many nations, just as it had been said to him, "So shall your offspring be."
4.19. Without weakening in his faith, he faced the fact that his body was as good as dead -- since he was about a hundred years old -- and that Sarah's womb was also dead.
4.20.Yet he did not waver through unbelief regarding the promise of God, but was strengthened in his faith and gave glory to God,
4.21.being fully persuaded that God had power to do what he had promised.
4.22.This is why "it was credited to him as righteousness."
4.23.The words "it was credited to him" were spoken not for him alone,
4.24.but also for us, to whom God will credit righteousness -- to us who believe in him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead.]


Chapter 5

5.1 to 5.19 - justification by faith a fabricated doctrine

5.1.[Therefore, since we have been justified through faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, 
5.2.through whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we now stand. And we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God.
5.3.Not only so, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering  produces perseverance;  
5.4.perseverance character; and character hope.
5.5.And hope does not disappoint us,
because he has poured out his love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit he has given us. 
5.6.You see, at just the right time, when we were still powerless, Christ died for the ungodly.
5.7.Very rarely will anyone die for a righteous man, though for a good man someone might possibly dare to die. 
5.8.But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us.  
5.9.Since we have now been justified by his blood, how much more shall we be saved from God’s wrath through him! 
5.10.For if, when we were God’s enemies we were reconciled to him through the death of his Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through his life! 
5.11.Not only is this so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation.
5.12.Therefore, just as sin entered
the world through one man, and in this way death came to all men, because all sinned,
5.13. – for before the law was given, sin was in the world.  But sin is not taken into account when there is no law. 
5.14.Nevertheless, death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, even over those who did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam, who was originally a pattern of the one to come.
5.15.But the gift is not like the trespass.  For if the many died  by the trespass of the one man, how much more did God’s grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many.
5.16.Again, the gift of God is not like the result of one man’s sin:  The judgement followed one sin and brought condemnation, but the gift followed many trespasses and brought justification.
5.17.For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive God’s abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ.
5.18.Consequently, just as the result of one trespass was condemnation for all men, so also
the result of one act of righteousness was justification that brings life for all men.   
5.19.For just as through the disobedience of the one man, the many were made sinners, so also through obedience of the one man, the many will be made righteous].

5.20 follows-on from 4.11.  The law involved sacrifices which were added by Moses to reveal the spirit of deceit or falsehood in the Israelites and hence reveal the Spirit of God by contrast.

5.20.The law was added so that the [trespass] {spirit of deceit} might [increase] {be revealed}. But where [sin] {the spirit of deceit} [increased] {was revealed}, [grace] {the Spirit} [increased] {was revealed} all the more.

5.21.[So that, just as sin reigned in death, so also grace might reign through righteousness to bring eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.]

Chapter 6


6.1.[What shall we say, then?  Shall we go on sinning, so that grace may increase? 
6.2.By no means!  We died to sin; how can we live in it any longer?  
6.3.Or don’t you know that all of us who were baptised into Christ Jesus were baptised into his death.
6.4.We were therefore buried with him through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of God the Father, we too may live a new life.
6.5.if we have been united with him like this in his death, we will certainly also be united with him in his resurrection.
6.6.For we know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves to sin –
6.7.because anyone who has died has been freed from sin.
6.8.Now if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him.
6.9.For we know that since Christ was raised from the dead, he cannot die again; death no longer has mastery over him. 
6.10.The death he died, he died to sin once for all; but the life he lives, he lives to God
6.11.In the same way, count yourselves dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus.] 

DO NOT LET THE SPIRIT OF DECEIT REIGN IN YOUR MORTAL BODY

6.12 continues from 5.20

6.12.Therefore do not let [sin] {the spirit of deceit} reign in your mortal body so that you obey its [evil] {impure} desires. 

6.13.[Do not offer the parts of your body to sin, as instruments of wickedness, but rather offer yourselves to God,as those who have been brought from death to life; as instruments of righteousness. 
6.14.For sin shall not be your master, because you are not under law, but under grace.
6.15.What then?  Shall we disobey because we are not under law but under grace. By no means! 
6.16.Don't you know that when you offer yourselves to someone to obey him as slaves, you are slaves to the one whom you obey. 
 -- whether you are slaves to sin, which leads to death, or to obedience, which leads to righteousness?
6.17.But thanks be to God that, though you used to be slaves to sin, you wholeheartedly obeyed the form of teaching to which you were entrusted.
6.18.You have been set free from sin and have become slaves to righteousness.
6.19.I put this in human terms because you are weak in your natural selves.  Just as you used to offer the parts of your body in slavery to impurity, so now offer them in slavery to righteousness leading to holiness. 
6.20.When you were slaves to sin, you were free from the control of righteousness. 
6.21.What benefit did you reap at that time from the things you are now ashamed of? 
6.22.Those things result in death!  But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves to God, the benefit you reap leads to holiness,and the result is eternal life. 
6.23.For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in the Christ Jesus our Lord].  

Chapter 7


 7.1.[Do you not know, brothers – for I am speaking to men who know the law -- that the law has authority over a man as long as he lives?
7.2.For example, by law a married woman is bound to her husband as long as he is alive, but if her husband dies, she is released from the law of marriage.
7.3.So then, if she marries another man while her husband is still alive, she is called an adulteress.  But if her husband dies, she is released from that law and is not an adulteress, even though she marries another man.
7.4.So, my brothers, you also died to the law through the body of Christ that you might belong to another, to him who was raised from the dead, in order that we might bear fruit to God.] 

7.5 follows on from 6.12

7.5.For when we were controlled by the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit}, the [sinful} {impure} [passions] {powers} aroused by the [law] {spirit of deceit} were at work in our bodies. 

7.6.[But now, by dying to what once bound us we have been released from the law so that we serve in the new way of the Spirit and not in the old way of the written code.
7.7.What shall we say, then?  Is the law sin?  Certainly not! Indeed I would not have known what sin was except through the law. For I would not have known what coveting really was if the law had not said, "Do not covet."
7.8.But sin, seizing the opportunity, afforded by the commandment,
produced in me every kind of covetous desire.  For apart from law, sin is dead. 
7.9.Once I was alive apart from the law; but when the commandment came, sin sprang to life and I died. 
7.10.I found that the very commandment that was intended to bring life actually brought death.
7.11.For sin, seizing the opportunity afforded by the commandment, deceived me ,and through the commandment put me to death].
7.12.So then, the law is holy, and the commandment is holy righteous and good. Did the law then, become unspiritual to me? 
7.13.Did that which is good, then, become death to me? By no means!  But in order that sin might be recognised as sin, it produced death in me through what was good so that through the commandment sin might become utterly sinful. 
7.14.We know that the law is spiritual; but I am unspiritual, sold as a slave to sin. 
7.15.I do not understand what I do.  For what I want to do, I do not do, but what I hate I do.    
7.16.And if I do what I do not want to do, I agree that the law is good.
7.18.I know that nothing good lives in me, that is my sinful nature.
For I have the desire to [do what is good, but I cannot carry it out. 
7.19.For what I do is not the good what I want to do; no, the evil what I do not want to do -- this I keep on doing. 
7.20.Now if I do what I do not want to do, it is no longer I who do it, but it is sin living in me that does it.
7.21. So I find this law at work: When I want to do good, evil is right there with me. 
7.22. For in my inner being I delight in God’s law;
7.23. but I see another law at work in the members of my body, waging war against the law of my mind, making me a prisoner of the law of sin at work within my members. 
7.24. What a wretched man I am!  Who will rescue me from this body of death? 
7.25. Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord!  So then, I myself in my mind am a slave to God’s law, but in the sinful nature a slave to the law of sin].

Chapter 8


NO CONDEMNATION FOR THOSE WHO ARE IN THE SPIRIT

8.1.Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are IN [Christ Jesus] {the Spirit}.

8.2.[because through Christ Jesus the law of the Spirit of life set me free from the law of sin and death.]

8.3.For what [the law] {our spirit of truth} was powerless to do in that it was [weakened] {polluted} by the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit}, God did by sending his own [Son] {Spirit}
[in the likeness of sinful man]
to [be a sin offering] {cleanse}  

[And so he condemned sin in sinful man,
8.4.in order that the righteous requirements of the law might be fully met in]

us, who do not [live according to] {obey} the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit} but [according to] {obey} the Spirit {of God}.  

8.5.Those who [live according to] {obey} their [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit} [have their minds set on] {do} what that [nature] {spirit} desires; but those who [live in accordance with] {obey} the Spirit [have their minds set on] {do} what the Spirit desires. 

8.6.The [mind of sinful man] {spirit of deceit} is [death] {condemned}, but the [mind] {spirit of truth} controlled by the Spirit {of God} is [life and peace] {freed}.

8.7.The [sinful mind] {spirit of deceit} is hostile to {the Spirit of} God. It does not submit to God’s [law] {Spirit}, nor can it do so. 

8.8.Those controlled by the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit} cannot please God.

8.9.You, however, are controlled not by the [sinful nature] {spirit of deceit} but by the Spirit, if the Spirit of God lives in you. 

[And if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ. 
8.10.But if Christ is in you, your body is
dead because of sin yet your spirit is alive because of righteousness.
8.11.And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead is living in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit, who lives in you.
8.12.Therefore brothers, we have an obligation, but it is not to the sinful nature, to live according, to it,
8.13.For if you live according to the sinful nature, you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the misdeeds of the body, you will live,
8.14.because those who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.
8.15.For you did not receive a spirit that makes you a slave again to fear, but you received the Spirit of sonship. And by him we cry, "Abba, Father."
8.16.The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit that we are God's children. 
8.17.Now if we are children, then we are heirs -- heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ, if indeed we share in his sufferings in order that we may also share in his glory.]  



THE SPIRIT’S GLORY WILL BE REVEALED

8.18.I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in [us] {the Spirit}. 

8.19.[The creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 
8.2O.For the creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it,
8.21.that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God.
8.22.We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time. 
8.23.Not only so, but we ourselves ,who have  the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies. 
8.24.For in this hope we were saved.  But hope that is seen is no hope at all.  Who hopes for what he already has?
8.25.But if we hope for what we do not yet have, we wait for it patiently.
8.26.In the same way,]

8.26.The Spirit helps us in our weakness.  We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express. 

8.27.[And we know that in all things the Spirit of God works for the good of those who believe him, who have been called according to his purpose. 
8.28.For those God foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of sons, that they might be many brothers. 
8.29.And those he predestined, he also called; those he called, he also justified; those he justified, he also glorified.]

8.31.What, then, shall we say in response to this?  If {the Spirit of} God is for us, who can be against us? 

8.32.[He who did not spare his own Son, but gave him up for us all,  - how will he not also, along with him, graciously give us all things? 
8.33.Who will bring any charge against those whom God has chosen? 
It is the God who justifies.
8.34.Who is he that condemns?  Christ Jesus who died – more than that, who was raised to life – is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us.]

8.35.Who shall separate us from the [love] {Spirit} of [Christ] {God}?  Shall trouble or hardship or persecution or famine or nakedness or danger or sword? 

8.36.[As it is written: "For your sake we face death all day long; we are considered as sheep to be slaughtered."]

8.37.No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who [forgives] {cleanses} us. 

8.38.For I am convinced that [neither death nor life,] neither angels nor demons, [neither the present nor the future,] nor any powers,

8.39.[neither height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation,]

will be able to separate us from the [love] {Spirit} of God


[that is in Christ Jesus our Lord].

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

A COMPLETE INTERPOLATION

16.1.[I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a servant of the church in Cenchrea. 
16.2.I ask you to receive her in the Lord and to give her any help she may need from you, for she has been a great help to many people, including me. 
16.3.Greet Priscilla and Aquila, my fellow-workers, in the Lord. 
16.4.They risked their lives for me.  Not only I, but all the assemblies of the Gentiles are grateful to them. 
16.5.Greet also the assembly that meets at their house. Greet my dear friend Epenetus, who was the first convert to Christ in Asia. 
16.6.Greet Mary, who worked very hard, in the Lord for you. 
16.7.Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives who have been in prison with me. They are outstanding among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was. 
16.8.Greet Ampliatus, whom I love, in the Lord. 
16.9.Greet Urbanus, our fellow-worker, in the Lord, and my dear friend Stachys. 
16.10.Greet Apelles, tested and approved, in the Lord. Greet those who belong to the household of Aristobulus. 
16.11.Greet Herodian, my relative. 
Greet those in the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 
16.12.Greet Tryphena and Tryphosa, those women who work hard, in the Lord. Greet my dear friend Persis, another woman who has worked very hard, in the Lord. 
16.13.Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother, who has been a mother to me, too. 
16.14.Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas and the brothers with them. 
16.15.Greet Philologus, Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas and all the saints with them. 
16.16.Greet one another with a holy kiss. 
All the assemblies of Christ send greetings.
16.17.I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in your way that are contrary to the teaching you have learned. Keep away from them. 
16.18.For such people are not serving our Lord Christ, but their own appetites.  By smooth talk and flattery they deceive the minds of naïve people. 
16.19.Everyone has heard about your obedience so I am full of joy over you;
but I want you to be wise about what is good and innocent about what is evil. 
16.20.The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. 
16.21.Timothy, my fellow-worker, sends his greetings to you, as do Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my relatives.
16.22.I, Tertius who wrote down this letter, greet you in the Lord. 
16.23.Gaius, whose hospitality I and the whole church here enjoy, sends you his greetings.
16.24.Erastus, who is the city's director of public works, and our brother Quartus send you their greetings.  
16.25.Now to him who is able to establish you by my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery hidden for long ages past,
16.26.but now revealed…and made known through the prophetic writings…by the command of the eternal God, so that all nations might believe and obey him –
16.27.to the only wise God be glory for ever!  Amen.]